Understanding the Earth’s structure the Earth’s structure consists of three parts the crust the mantle and the core the structure is similar to that of an egg it’s crossed is like the shell it’s mantle is like the egg white and the coal is like the yolk the crust is found beneath mountain ranges and oceans its thickness ranges from 40.
Kilometers and the mountains and only 8 kilometers under oceans.
Part of the Earth’s mantle is made up of rocks.
So hot that it is liquid or molten the mantle is measured at 2900.
Kilometers of thickness this molten rock seeps through cracks in the crust and pours out of volcanoes.
In the form of lava when the.
Lava cools down it turns to rocks and stones the Earth’s core is mostly made up of iron the core is divided into two parts the inner core and the outer core scientists strongly feel that the inner core is solid while the outer core is an illiquid state an estimate of the course temperature ranges from 4,000 to 6,000 degrees Celsius scientists understand the composition of the.
Earth better by studying seismic waves.
Seismic waves are vibrations that spread out from the epicentre of earthquakes continents of the world continents are very large land masses found on earth the earth has seven such continents Asia Africa North America South America Antarctica Europe and Australia Asia is the world’s largest and most populous continent it.
Covers 30 percent of the Earth’s landmass and hosts.
60% of the world’s current human population Asia along with Yara found the world’s largest landmass Eurasia / the Ural Mountains by water it.
Is bounded on three sides by the Pacific Ocean Indian Ocean and.
Arctic Ocean Africa is the second largest and also the second most populated continent in the world the continent of Africa covers 20.4 percent of the world’s total land area and accounts for 14.7 2% of the world’s human population it.
Is surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea the.
Indian Ocean the Atlantic Ocean and the Red Sea.
Africa is widely regarded to be the continent where humans originated it is located on the equator and experiences a number of climatic changes North America is a third largest continent it occupies sixteen point five percent of the world’s land mass and homes 7.8 percent of the world’s population.
It is surrounded by four water bodies the Arctic Ocean the Atlantic Ocean the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea South.
America is the fourth largest continent in terms of area it is also the fifth most populous continent it is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and to the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean South America is home to the world’s highest waterfall the largest river by volume the longest mountain range and many other geographical wonders Antarctica is the fifth largest continent.
In the area about 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages about 1.6 kilometers in thickness it is the.
Coldest driest and windiest continent Antarctica is considered a desert with only 8 inches of rainfall in a year people live here only.
For research purpose temperatures in Antarctica can drop to as low as minus 89 degrees Celsius it is home to a variety of penguin species your reply convention is one of the world’s seven continents divided from Asia by the Ural Mountains it covers about 6.8 percent of the Earth’s surface area and accounts for 11% of its population it is bordered by the Arctic Ocean the Atlantic.
Ocean the Mediterranean Sea and.
The Black Sea Australia is the smallest and lowest lying human inhabited continent on earth as it is mostly on a single landmass it is also referred to as an island continent surrounded by oceans what a soil profile a vertical section cutting through.
The soil showing the different layers of the soil is called a soil profile soil profile can be seen by looking at the sides of a recently dug trench or while digging a well or a foundation of a building sean has three different layers topsoil subsoil and substrata capsule it is.
The most useful part of the soil it.
Is dark in color because it is rich in minerals and.
Humans plant roots also grow.
In the topsoil many living things like insects worms bacteria and rodents live in the topsoil it contains the decayed remains of dead plants and animals which forms.
Humors humans makes the topsoil very fertile subsoil the layer of soil just below the topsoil is called subsoil it is lighter in color and has little humors it is made up of slightly bigger rock particles which makes it harder and more compact.
It contains very little living organisms substrata the layer of soil just below the subsoil is called the substratum it mainly consists of partially broken or weathered rocks these rocks keep breaking from the bedrock which is just below the substratum it is this.
Bedrock that has produced soil over a long period of time there are some important climatic factors which affect the soil profile and bring changes in the soil what are glaciers glaciers are massive bodies of flowing ice they are found in cold regions where snow does not melt it just piles up and crushes the snow beneath it to form glaciers glaciers slowly.
Move downwards changing the shape of the topography as they go glaciers that move downwards carve out u-shaped valleys as they slide bits of rocks carried by glaciers collect to form rich life mounds called moraines above a certain height snow never melts this is called the snow line glaciers always form.
Above this line what is the ozone layer have you ever wondered why cricketers paint their faces white or why your mother insists that you put on sunscreen lotion before stepping out every summer the answer is UV.
Rays ultraviolet or UV rays are harmful sun rays that can increase the risk of skin cancer cataract and harm the immune system they can also damage to restaurant life single-cell organisms and aquatic ecosystems life on Earth is protected from the.
UV rays by a layer in the stratosphere called the ozone layer ozone is a gas made up of three oxygen atoms this layer is just about three to five millimeters thick this thinly spread out gas has been protecting life on the Earth’s surface from UV rays for billions of years our ozone shield is now being deteriorated due to certain man-made chemicals primarily chlorofluorocarbons CFCs and nitrogen oxides CFCs are a.